Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC)

What is Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) or Human Leukocyte Antigen( HLA)? • Cluster of highly polymorphic genes present in short arm of chromosome . • Product of which is associated with various functions in immune response particularly in rejection or acceptance of foreign tissue in a host. • They are alloantigen. • The Major Histocompatibility […]

Bacterial Structure

Shape & size of Bacterial Structure Bacterial Structure : Bacteria are classified by shape into three basic groups: • Cocci, • Bacilli, and • Spirochetes Bacteria range in size from about 0.2 to 5 μm. Structure of Bacteria/Bacterial Structure Bacterial Structure Essential components in the Bacterial Structure. •Cell wall Peptidoglycan Outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria […]


Adjuvant They are substances that when mixed with an antigen & injected with it, enhance the immunogenicity of that antigen. They are used when an antigen has low immunogenicity or when only small amounts of an antigen are available. • Aluminum potassium sulfate (Alum)is the only adjuvant approved for human use. • Effect of adjuvants […]

Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology PDF

Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology is the most concise, easy-to-use, and frequently updated review of the medically important aspects of microbiology and immunology. 654 USMLE-style practice questions test your knowledge and understanding 50 clinical cases illustrate the importance of basic science in clinical diagnosis A complete USMLE-style practice exam consisting of 80 questions Pearls […]


Hypersensitivity is an inappropriate excessive immune response to an antigenic stimulus in a pre-sensitized host leading to tissue damage. It is one of the Immunological disorder along with Autoimmune Diseases, Immunologic deficiency syndromes, Amyloidosis. The term “allergy” is often equated with hypersensitivity but more accurately should be limited to the IgE-mediated reactions: “Type I: Immediate […]

The Complement System-Immunology

Complement is an essential component of our innate host defences. Complement is a collective term used to designate a group of plasma proteins at least 20 in number, that are present in average human (and other animals) serum. The term “complement” refers to the ability of these proteins to complement, i.e., augment, the effects of […]

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