Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC)

What is Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) or Human Leukocyte Antigen( HLA)? • Cluster of highly polymorphic genes present in short arm of chromosome . • Product of which is associated with various functions in immune response particularly in rejection or acceptance of foreign tissue in a host. • They are alloantigen. • The Major Histocompatibility […]

Immunoglobulin (Ig)

Immunoglobulin are proteins of animal origin endowed with or without antibody activity. So structurally related proteins without antibody activity are also known as immunoglobulin, e.g. myeloma protein (found in multiple myeloma). Antibody Antibodies are glycoprotein substances synthesized and secreted by B lymphoid lineage cells, termed plasma cells, in response to stimulation with an immunogen. Basic […]

Bacterial Structure

Shape & size of Bacterial Structure Bacterial Structure : Bacteria are classified by shape into three basic groups: • Cocci, • Bacilli, and • Spirochetes Bacteria range in size from about 0.2 to 5 μm. Structure of Bacteria/Bacterial Structure Bacterial Structure Essential components in the Bacterial Structure. •Cell wall Peptidoglycan Outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria […]

Bacterial Culture and Media 

What is a Culture ? Culture is the process of cultivation of the micro-organisms in the laboratory for the purpose of identifying & studying them. Bacterial Culture and Media  What is a Media ? Media are the artificial food for microorganisms, which are used for the cultivation of microorganisms in the laboratory under appropriate biochemical […]

Bacterial Physiology

Bacterial growth What is Growth in Bacterial Physiology ? Growth is the orderly increase in the sum of all the components of an organism. Bacterial growth involves both an increase in the size of organisms and an increase in their number. What is Death in Bacterial Physiology ? Death means the irreversible loss of the […]


Adjuvant They are substances that when mixed with an antigen & injected with it, enhance the immunogenicity of that antigen. They are used when an antigen has low immunogenicity or when only small amounts of an antigen are available. • Aluminum potassium sulfate (Alum)is the only adjuvant approved for human use. • Effect of adjuvants […]


Hypersensitivity is an inappropriate excessive immune response to an antigenic stimulus in a pre-sensitized host leading to tissue damage. It is one of the Immunological disorder along with Autoimmune Diseases, Immunologic deficiency syndromes, Amyloidosis. The term “allergy” is often equated with hypersensitivity but more accurately should be limited to the IgE-mediated reactions: “Type I: Immediate […]

The Complement System-Immunology

Complement is an essential component of our innate host defences. Complement is a collective term used to designate a group of plasma proteins at least 20 in number, that are present in average human (and other animals) serum. The term “complement” refers to the ability of these proteins to complement, i.e., augment, the effects of […]

Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic intestinal amoeba parasite that predominantly affects a man and causes amoebic dysentery and liver abscess. History Entamoeba histolytica was first discovered by Lösch in 1875 in Leningrad, Russia for causing disease in humans. Lösch discovered amoeba in ulcers of the colon at autopsy and induced it to a dog by rectal […]

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