Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC)

What is Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) or Human Leukocyte Antigen( HLA)? • Cluster of highly polymorphic genes present in short arm of chromosome . • Product of which is associated with various functions in immune response particularly in rejection or acceptance of foreign tissue in a host. • They are alloantigen. • The Major Histocompatibility […]

Immunoglobulin (Ig)

Immunoglobulin are proteins of animal origin endowed with or without antibody activity. So structurally related proteins without antibody activity are also known as immunoglobulin, e.g. myeloma protein (found in multiple myeloma). Antibody Antibodies are glycoprotein substances synthesized and secreted by B lymphoid lineage cells, termed plasma cells, in response to stimulation with an immunogen. Basic […]

Bacterial Structure

Shape & size of Bacterial Structure Bacterial Structure : Bacteria are classified by shape into three basic groups: • Cocci, • Bacilli, and • Spirochetes Bacteria range in size from about 0.2 to 5 μm. Structure of Bacteria/Bacterial Structure Bacterial Structure Essential components in the Bacterial Structure. •Cell wall Peptidoglycan Outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria […]

Bacterial Culture and Media 

What is a Culture ? Culture is the process of cultivation of the micro-organisms in the laboratory for the purpose of identifying & studying them. Bacterial Culture and Media  What is a Media ? Media are the artificial food for microorganisms, which are used for the cultivation of microorganisms in the laboratory under appropriate biochemical […]

Bacterial Physiology

Bacterial growth What is Growth in Bacterial Physiology ? Growth is the orderly increase in the sum of all the components of an organism. Bacterial growth involves both an increase in the size of organisms and an increase in their number. What is Death in Bacterial Physiology ? Death means the irreversible loss of the […]


Adjuvant They are substances that when mixed with an antigen & injected with it, enhance the immunogenicity of that antigen. They are used when an antigen has low immunogenicity or when only small amounts of an antigen are available. • Aluminum potassium sulfate (Alum)is the only adjuvant approved for human use. • Effect of adjuvants […]

Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine

Park’s Text Book of Preventive & Social Medicine (Book): This Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 23rd Edition is edited by K. Park. This Twenty-Third Editionis in keeping with the tradition of release of new editions at regular intervals, with the objective to match the pace of everchanging subject matter. The book has been thoroughly updated and revised. The […]

Basic and Clinical Pharmacology -katzung PDF

Basic and Clinical Pharmacologyis The most up-to-date, comprehensive, and authoritative pharmacology text in health medicine Enhanced by more than three hundred illustrations — many in full color Organized to reflect the syllabi in many pharmacology courses and in integrated curricula, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 12e covers the important concepts students need to know about the science of […]

Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease PDF

Dependable, current, and complete, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 9th Edition is the perennially best-selling text that you’ll use long after your medical student days are behind you. A world-class author team headed by Drs. Vinay Kumar, Abul Abbas, and Jon Aster, delivers the latest, most essential pathology knowledge in a readable, interesting manner, ensuring optimal understanding […]

Harsh Mohan – Textbook of Pathology PDF

•Harsh Mohan – Textbook of Pathology is Revised and Updated Text: Insertion of latest information between the lines in various aspects of diseases- additional causes, recent mechanism and newer diagnostic techniques. Current criteria of diagnosis of common diseases and most recent WHO classification of neoplasms along with references have been included in all chapters. 25 […]

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